environment literature review

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Environment literature review


Another study of park improvements found increased number of white users, but no significant change for black, Hispanic or other park users. Although these two studies provide a limited basis from which to draw inferences, the possibility that infrastructure improvements may predominantly benefit socioeconomically advantaged groups warrants further exploration in future evaluations.

As identified in previous reviews, there was substantial variability in the methodology, measures, and analytical processes used to evaluate the impact of environmental interventions. Overall, this made comparisons between studies and intervention delivery approaches difficult.

In part, this variability may be a by-product of the significant differences in intervention typologies and associated research designs. There remains, however, a need for improved study quality, which may mitigate this somewhat e. Our quality assessment rated three-quarters of included studies as weak.

Studies were frequently limited by lack of representativeness and generalisability. In most cases, blinding was not described in studies. It is worth noting there are ethical issues to be considered with participant blinding such as informed consent , and that these can sometimes conflict with quality assessment criteria, where blinding is desirable to reduce bias associated with participant self-report or reactivity [ 67 ].

We chose to retain this category for consistency with the EPHPP and previous research that has used this tool. An indepth consideration of the issues surrounding the evaluation of blinding in quality assessment is beyond the scope of this review, but should be taken into account in future reviews in this field. Few studies comprehensively controlled for confounders.

While sex and age were commonly controlled or stratified for in analyses, only some included robust measures of SES or ethnicity. Depending on study design, area-level SES and ethnicity characteristics may suffice in order to mitigate challenges around collecting these data at the individual level. In their systematic review, Schule et al. Issues around contamination and consistency across intervention sites were rarely considered and were not controlled for in any analyses.

Future studies would also benefit from considering neighbourhood self-selection as a possible confounder. In their systematic review, McCormack et al. Likewise, baseline activity was rarely controlled for in analyses. One recent study to consider this factor revealed that existing cycling behaviour, as well as distance to the intervention site, was associated with increased use of a new bike path in Australian adults [ 68 ].

Overall, there was a lack of research specific to children or older adults. It is possible that the adult-centric approach to characterising built environments may not be sufficiently capturing environments that matter to younger populations.

For example, in their earlier review, Sugiyama et al. A recent systematic review showed that where youth physical activity was geo-located i. In keeping with Hunter et al. The lack of clear and consistent reporting of intervention cost limited any ability to determine whether a relationship existed between expenditure and behaviour change, and whether costs differed significantly between intervention types.

Moreover, the low quality of evidence found overall negatively impacts confidence in estimations of cost-effectiveness of built environment interventions [ 41 ]. Compared with infrastructural interventions, relocation studies are less hindered by infrastructural cost. RESIDE is perhaps the first study of its kind — a natural experiment involving longitudinal data collection with new residents of new housing developments [ 69 ]. The study commenced in prior to participants moving, with follow-up data collection occurring with participants approximately 12 months after their baseline pre-moving survey.

This important study demonstrates the value of well-designed residential relocation studies. The substantial inconsistency in timing and number of follow-up measures post exposure i. In their systematic review of natural or quasi-experiments, Mayne et al. This phenomenon was observed in the iConnect study, in which no effect on behaviour was observed one year after a major environmental intervention, but significant changes were found at the two-year follow-up [ 56 ].

Pragmatic and economic factors may limit the feasibility of repeated and longer-term follow-up periods in this research field, but where possible this should be encouraged. Finally, it is possible that publication bias affected the balance of studies included in this review.

In general, registration or public release in other forms of study protocols prior to the publication of findings provides a check on selective reporting of study results. This systematic review focused on physical activity behaviours and use or visitation of settings, and did not include more distal health measures such as body size [ 72 ]. While these outcomes are unquestionably important, this approach was taken recognising that: a a substantial period of time exists between sustained activity behaviours and manifestation of associated health outcomes, and b studies in this field rarely examine effects of the built environment on activity behaviours for a sufficient period of time to expect meaningful changes in health outcomes that are downstream from improved physical activity behaviours.

The broad inclusion criteria used here are a strength, drawing on studies across all quality assessment categories as well as considering findings in light of study quality. However, the exclusion of grey literature could have been a limiting factor, in that it is possible that significant new lines of inquiry might have been overlooked. While acknowledging the important role of perceptions on the relationship between the built environment and activity behaviours [ 73 , 74 ], this review focused only on objectively assessed built environment features.

The association between the built environment and activity varies, depending on whether perceived or objective measures are used [ 73 , 75 , 76 , 77 ]. Moreover these differences are not consistent, and vary along with individual factors such as education level, income, body size, and physical activity [ 74 , 78 ]. Individuals who are more physically active may be more familiar with their local environment, and more aware of both positive and negative features, than those who are less active [ 79 ].

In the interest of providing clear and direct information to inform policy and practice that was not complicated or hindered by individual perceptions, we chose to focus on objective measures of the environment. Future reviews may consider replicating the current study with a focus on perceived environmental features only, while others may undertake the task of considering both objective and subjectively-assessed environments.

There is an emerging body of research that simultaneously considers both objective and subjective measures of the environment in relation to physical activity [ 76 ]; offering challenges and opportunities for future reviews in this area.

Our focus was on being able to isolate the effect of specific built environment features or interventions, thus studies that employed aggregate measures e. A range of robust studies exist in the field that have utilized aggregate measures [ 80 , 81 ]. The exclusion of this research limits an understanding of the combination of features that encompass a pedestrian or cyclist friendly environment. However, this approach was taken in the interest of generating specific findings that could be translated into policy and practice.

Measures that combine variables may be difficult to interpret, if it is not possible to determine which components are most effective. Future reviews with differing aims could consider including aggregate scores, and might extend this to broader aggregate concepts such as obesogenic environments [ 82 ].

There have been calls for more systematic approaches in reviews in this field [ 83 ]. This study employed robust systematic procedures following best practice, and improved on existing reviews by conducting quality assessment of articles, considering article quality when summarising results, including literature for children and adults, excluding cross-sectional studies, and attempting to isolate the effect of the built environment from other interventions occurring in studies.

With the intent of providing evidence from the most robust evidence possible and undertaking a process that was as replicable as possible, as well as drawing from existing high quality reviews in this field [ 12 , 14 , 16 , 30 , 31 , 46 ], this review did not include grey literature or involve forwards citation searches.

Future reviews may undertake these processes to capture an evidence base that is as broad and up-to-date as possible [ 45 , 84 ]. Although our global quality assessment score does not include measures of study contamination, consistency, health equity, or intervention cost, these factors were systematically considered and presented in the context of understanding the overall quality of studies presented in this review.

The strongest evidence existed for multiple streetscape components adult PA, child AT , installation of fitness equipment adult PA and AT , temporary road closures and play equipment child PA , and recreation facility density adult PA.

Numerous limitations in the evidence base exist. In particular, the possibility that the benefits of infrastructure improvements may be inequitably distributed requires further investigation. Notwithstanding the significant challenges in terms of research design, many opportunities to improve the quality of evidence are clear, including strategies to improve response rates and representativeness, use of valid and reliable measurement tools, cost-benefit analyses, and adequate controlling for confounders.

World Health Organization. Global recommendations on physical activity for health. Geneva; Lancet physical activity series working group: effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide: an analysis of burden of disease and life expectancy. Lancet physical activity series 2 executive C: the economic burden of physical inactivity: a global analysis of major non-communicable diseases.

Article PubMed Google Scholar. Role of built environments in physical activity, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. What are the health benefits of active travel? A systematic review of trials and cohort studies. PLoS One. Article Google Scholar. Health impacts of active transportation in Europe. Cobenefits of replacing car trips with alternative transportation: a review of evidence and methodological issues.

J Environ Public Health. Moving urban trips from cars to bicycles: impact on health and emissions. Google Scholar. Encouraging walking for transport and physical activity in children and adolescents: how important is the built environment? Sports Med. Physical activity in relation to urban environments in 14 cities worldwide: a cross-sectional study.

Online First. Search of causality: a systematic review of the relationship between the built environment and physical activity among adults. The impact of interventions to promote physical activity in urban green space: a systematic review and recommendations for future research. Soc Sci Med. Impact of policy and built environment changes on obesity-related outcomes: a systematic review of naturally occurring experiments.

Obes Rev. Associations of objectively measured built-environment attributes with youth moderate-vigorous physical activity: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Objectively measured walkability and active transport and weight-related outcomes in adults: a systematic review. Int J Public Health. A systematic review of built environment factors related to physical activity and obesity risk: implications for smart growth urban planning. Fraser SD, Lock K. Cycling for transport and public health: a systematic review of the effect of the environment on cycling.

Eur J Pub Health. Interventions to promote cycling: systematic review. Built environment and health behaviors among African Americans: a systematic review. Am J Prev Med. Potential environmental determinants of physical activity in adults: a systematic review. Environmental influences on healthy and active ageing: a systematic review.

Ageing Soc. Cost-effectiveness of population-level physical activity interventions: a systematic review. Am J Health Promot. Economic analyses of transport infrastructure and policies including health effects related to cycling and walking: a systematic review.

Transp Policy. Schule SA, Bolte G. Interactive and independent associations between the socioeconomic and objective built environment on the neighbourhood level and individual health: a systematic review of multilevel studies. Environmental determinants of physical activity in children: a systematic review. Archives of Exercise in Health and Disease.

A systematic review of economic analyses of active transport interventions that include physical activity benefits. Understanding environmental influences on walking; review and research agenda. Destination and route attributes associated with adults' walking: a review. Med Sci Sports Exerc. Environmental correlates of walking and cycling: findings from the transportation, urban design, and planning literatures. Ann Behav Med. Built environment correlates of walking: a review.

Associations between the neighbourhood built environment and out of school physical activity and active travel: an examination from the kids in the City study. A tale of two cities: paradoxical intensity of traffic calming around Auckland schools. PubMed Google Scholar. Zhu X, Lee C. Walkability and safety around elementary schools. Economic and ethnic disparities. Longitudinal results from the UK iConnect study.

Prev Med. The societal costs and benefits of commuter bicycling: simulating the effects of specific policies using system dynamics modeling. United Kingdom; Infrastructure, programs, and policies to increase bicycling: an international review. An update of recent evidence of the relationship between objective and self-report measures of the physical enviornment and physical activity behaviours. CAS Google Scholar. Built environment assessment: multidisciplinary perspectives.

SSM - Population Health. The effect of changing the built environment on physical activity: a quantitative review of the risk of bias in natural experiments. Int J Behav Nutr Phy. Built environment interventions aimed at improving physical activity levels in rural Ontario health units: a descriptive qualitative study.

BMC Public Health. Exploring complex causal pathways between urban renewal, health and health inequality using a theory-driven realist approach. Smith M. Systematic Review Protocol. Retrieved September 26, Applying systematic review search methods to the grey literature: a case study examining guidelines for school-based breakfast programs in Canada.

Syst Rev. A systematic review of interventions for promoting active transportation to school. Epidemiology and reporting characteristics of systematic reviews. PLoS Med. Epidemiology and reporting characteristics of systematic reviews of biomedical research: a cross-sectional study. Physical activity associated with public transport use--a review and modelling of potential benefits.

A new rail stop: tracking moderate physical activity bouts and ridership. Mayer KU. Retrospective longitudinal research: the German life history study. Edited by Menard S. Burlington, MA: Elsevier; Health impacts of new roads: a systematic review. Am J Public Health. Data collection form. EPOC Resources for review authors. Salmond CE, Crampton P.

Can J Public Health. New walking and cycling routes and increased physical activity: one- and 2-year findings from the UK iConnect study. Impact and cost-effectiveness of family fitness zones: a natural experiment in urban public parks. Health Place. Installation of bicycle lanes and increased ridership in an urban, mixed-income setting in New Orleans, Louisiana.

J Phys Act Health. Longitudinal associations between neighborhood recreational facilities and change in recreational physical activity in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis, Am J Epidemiol. Does building a greenway promote physical activity among proximate residents? The effect of a trail use intervention on urban trail use in southern Nevada. Bicycle boulevards and changes in physical activity and active transportation: findings from a natural experiment.

Effect of changes to the neighborhood built environment on physical activity in a low-income African American neighborhood. Prev Chronic Dis. Impact of the safe routes to school program on walking and biking: Eugene, Oregon study. The effectiveness of a community playground intervention. J Urban Health. Organizing "play streets" during school vacations can increase physical activity and decrease sedentary time in children.

Reporting methods of blinding in randomized trials assessing nonpharmacological treatments. Use of and short-term impacts of new cycling infrastructure in inner-Sydney, Australia: A quasi-experimental design. The influence of urban design on neighbourhood walking following residential relocation: longitudinal results from the RESIDE study. Taking up cycling after residential relocation: built environment factors.

A longitudinal analysis of the influence of the neighborhood built environment on walking for transportation: the RESIDE study. Moving to a highly walkable neighborhood and incidence of hypertension: a propensity-score matched cohort study. Environ Health Perspect. Perceived and objective environmental measures and physical activity among urban adults. Perceived and objective measures of neighborhood environment for physical activity among Mexican adults, Mismatch between perceived and objectively assessed neighborhood walkability attributes: prospective relationships with walking and weight gain.

Associations of the perceived and objective neighborhood environment with physical activity and sedentary time in New Zealand adolescents. A systematic review of agreement between perceived and objective neighborhood environment measures and associations with physical activity outcomes. Correlates of non-concordance between perceived and objective measures of walkability. Validation of the neighborhood environment walkability scale NEWS items using geographic information systems.

Krizek K. Pretest-posttest strategy for researching neighborhood-scale urban form and travel behavior. Trans Res Rec. Krizek KJ. Residential relocation and changes in urban travel: does neighborhood-scale urban form matter? Improving current practice in reviews of the built environment and physical activity. Searching for observational studies: what does citation tracking add to PubMed? A case study in depression and coronary heart disease.

J Am Plan Assoc. Before and after a new light rail stop: resident attitudes, travel behavior, and obesity. The potential for pocket parks to increase physical activity. Am J Health Prom. Impact of park renovations on park use and park-based physical activity.

Am J Prev Med ;39 : — PACE EH post project assessment of quality of life changes in a Florida community related to infrastructure improvements. J Environ Health. Did you know the library has an entire guide to help you write a literature review? Click the link below to learn more! For a full list of their services, look at the Lab Hours and Resources menue.

A literature review is an integrated analysis-- not just a summary-- of scholarly writings that are related directly to your research question. That is, it represents the literature that provides background information on your topic and shows a correspondence between those writings and your research question. A literature review may be a stand alone work or the introduction to a larger research paper, depending on the assignment. Rely heavily on the guidelines your instructor has given you.

Your opinion counts! Please give us feedback. Search this Guide Search. Ben Bell. Contact: John C. More about the Literature Review What Is A Literature Review? A Literature Review Is Not: just a summary of sources a grouping of broad, unrelated sources a compilation of everything that has been written on a particular topic literature criticism think English or a book review So, what is it then?

Why is it important? A literature review is important because it: Explains the background of research on a topic. Demonstrates why a topic is significant to a subject area. Identifies major themes, concepts, and researchers on a topic. Identifies critical gaps and points of disagreement. Discusses further research questions that logically come out of the previous studies. Steps for Conducting a Lit Review 1. Choose your topic, define your question Your literature review should be guided by a central research question.

Remember, it is not a collection of loosely related studies in a field but instead represents background and research developments related to a specific research question, interpreted and analyzed by you.

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The emissions from the production of these commodities by the chimneys of factories pollute the air by releasing dangerous gases into the atmosphere. How does this establish his sense of honor and old-fashioned values? Is there a reason that the novel does not explain the reason for his passing to Mars, and is it important to the story to know why? How does his interactions with them echo his earlier interactions with the Indians?

A ballad is a narrative or a lyrical poem which talks about the supernatural, mythology, legends or documents tribal wars and oral lore. In this poem, Keats has been faithful to a narrative ballad where the supernatural elements and the characters are in place.

The romantic element along with mystery and intrigue adds to the atmosphere of anticipation and a haunting quality. This poem, on the one hand, has elements of multiple This phenomenon has been used to indicate the ability of the current face of humanity to use the existing resources amicably and ensuring that the future generations are not compromised from using the same resources.

This concept has been extremely dynamic after and many countries have joined hands with the aim of ensuring that environmental protection is given priority inasmuch us human beings are trying to satisfy their needs Elliott, Ultimately, the definition of sustainable development encompasses nature including ecosystems and biodiversity, This form of analysis is very important to scientists, geographers and the government.

It helps to determine the nature of damages that man can expose to the environment and therefore prompting for the right action to be taken. No land remains the same forever. At some point in time, it may undergo some transformation that completely changes it appearance. This research looks at Considering the native geographical location where the polar bears reside, it can be safely assumed that these creatures live in a predominantly cold weather environment. In terms of general physical features, a male adult polar bear should weight somewhere around to 1, lbs.

Polar bears are a sister specie of the Tourism has been increasing since the first visitors to Antarctica despite the difficulties reaching the place. The freezing temperatures are not enough to slow the dedicated traveler away either. The infrastructure includes everything from selling parkas and equipment, to training guides and to offering trips by ships and planes coordinated with travel agencies. Several decades of increasing tourism to The Convention was lauded for establishing a system for refugee protection, however, experts have divided opinions with its continuous use in the 21st century.

There are experts stressing the need to repeal the Convention due to its outdated, inconsistent and limited nature. Other experts argued that the Convention should be retained due to the possibility of revitalizing the reform and the concessions Read more Literature Policy Protection Homelessness Europe Security Education Law Convention Definition Journal Environment 7 Pages Example Of Literature Review On The Contribution Of Nanotechnology To Hydrogen Production The ubiquitous climate change and the attendant consequences in the forms of flash floods, earthquakes, tsunamis etc has further intensified efforts at seeking alternative sources of energy to the currently used fossil fuels that contribute so much to the deterioration of the environment and the menace of climate change.

The alternative forms of energy, termed green energy are renewable sources of energy e. Theses green sources of energy do not contribute to the deterioration of the environment. The industrial production of hydrogen gas H2 is dependent on heavy use of fossil fuel-generated electricity to power the process It consists of six countries in the Middle East. The main objective of the formation of this council is to achieve unity among the countries. Consequently, the success of this council is due to the fact that the member states share common cultural and political beliefs rooted in the Islamic faith they profess.

There are different sources of waste including residential, industrial, commercial, institutional, construction and demolition, municipal, agriculture and manufacturing and all these waste products whether solid, gaseous, liquid or radioactive come under the realm of waste management. Due to the rapid growth and fast development in Australia, the country has produced waste on humongous amount.

As per the data provided by Australian Bureau of Statistics, the growth of average annual rate of waste production in Australia is about 5. This one-act play has won the Pulitzer Prize for drama. It is a story which deals with the medical profession as well as with the culture of education at universities. Both sides are brilliant in this story. Vivian Bearing is represents brilliant academic staff whereas, Doctor Kelekian and Dr Jason Posner represent the brilliant side of medical research.

None of them have emotions when it comes to work. The only character which feels empathy for Vivian is the nurse, Susie. She is the only character who is acting humane. Whereas Vivian is strict Warm demandingness is not just about caring to students, but also include insisting them to meet expected and actual academic standards of learning.

In view of the previous literature on the subject, many authors e. At this stage, academics is not so significant as the development of like skills like hygiene, socialization, good habits and basic readiness for academics. This is also the stage when children step out from the secure and closed world of their family.

They encounter the company of other children of their age. They establish relationship with the teachers. The values, beliefs and conventions in the society begin to take shape in the minds of the children. The kind of atmosphere This is due to the emphasis that has been made by various international environmental conservation organizations on the need for companies to provide a favorable working and living environmental for people in the world. The need for environmental friendly integrations is driven by the need to ensure that there are no further negative impacts that are made on the environment due to poor waste management and other wastes emitted from companies in production such as carbon monoxide emit ion and other poisonous gases Therefore, a straight statement can be declared about the annual average growth to be 1.

A detailed declaration made by CSO is as Summary Precautionary principle, which can be summarized as when an activity raises the threat of harm to human and the environment, preventive actions should be taken even if some cause and effect relationship are not fully established scientifically, is the common principle used to guide in managing scientific uncertainty in ingredient safety assessment Cara , The available registered disinfectants in the consumer market are quaternary ammonium, sodium hypochlorite and Triclosan.

However, there is a possibility of existence of the relation between these disinfectants and human health and environmental issues. Triclosan is a spectrum anti-microbial found in anti-bacterial This has been done by comparing the dangers identified and exposed estimates to give a decision to the agencies that regulate these products.

Assessing the harsh effects of a GMO on the environment remains one of the key controversies to decisions makers and institutions that assess risks as well as scientists. The Society of Toxicology is among the institutions that have dedicated their objectives to protect and improve health in humans, animals as well as the environment.

They give their stand Over , people were exposed to methyl isocyanate gas MIC and other chemicals leading to the instant death of more than 3, people and causing significant health problems to thousands of people who lived around the plant. The manufacturing process employed in the plant This paper will present you with the analysis of two stories, widely acknowledged in the borders of the literary community, in terms of their context, main theme, risen thoughts and issues as well as their reflections caused by their readings.

Emphasis will be given not only on their common elements regarding their thematic core but on their different way of approaching it. Le Guin and published in The issue of energy independence is a subject of debate that has dominated US politics for several decades. Virtually, every President since Richard Nixon to Barack Obama have pledged allegiance to assisting the United States realize the goal of energy dependence.

Homans argues that the United States has remained independent on imported oil despite increasing demands for energy anxiety across the globe. According to Miller , The meeting of John Smith and the Native American girl Pocahontas, and their subsequent love story, is echoed by the tense clash of cultures, demonstrating a dramatic story of love being found in the strangest places, as well as issues of land ownership and the promise of a New World. The original John Smith writings tell the tale in a fascinating and Eurocentric way that belies the true Sharing of knowledge has been found to be the most important to of guiding the Small and Medium size Enterprises SMEs in this kind of environment.

Consequently, knowledge management has become a significant tool in any organization for it to survive in this challenging business environment, Lang, This is based on the claim that, enterprises that values knowledge management are in a better position of coping with the changing business environment. In this Indoor air quality began a long time but only been a health concern decades ago when awareness of contaminants presented in the air.

The problem begins when the construction of building are highly insulated to conserve energy, which caused a trap to air intoxicants inside the building E. Willard, This causes the exchange of outdoor to indoor to lessen and therefore the indoor air pollution builds up. Indoor air quality is a complex issue as Register Internal server error.

Please try again later. Forgot password? Password recovery email has been sent to email email. Type of Paper. Essay Topics. Educational Tools. Need more Environmental Issues Literature Review examples? Literature Review Adapting to climate change is not limited to environmental issues but rather on the policies developed by the legal instruments, socially responsible business, scientific research as well as awareness creation.

Read more. Environmental Issues. Climate Change. United States. Sociology Abstract Keeping recent water shortages in mind, it is clear that our water resources and supply cannot be taken granted for the future. Global Warming. Water Shortage. Water Crisis. Area 51 at night and Area 51 by Joe Rosochacki are both small poems that are written about an imaginary place.

Area Don't waste your time searching for a sample. Sustainable Tourism Literature Review Examples. He does try to leave the article on a much lighter note at the end, ensure the readers that the earth, which is capable of rejuvenation, will fix itself. Logic One of the most obvious lacking rhetoric in the passage is that Rush Limbaugh uses no other credible source other than himself. Though, Atwood have produced many works, not any of her works has this much portrayal of nature and environmental issues as it is done in the novel Oryx and Crake.

Atwood believes that the climatic change is something that would cause a huge damage to the world as these climates do not change with the blessing of the Mother Nature but due to the horrid actions that is done by the humans. In the novel, Atwood in many places shows what would be the future like with the abomination of natural. They also point out that global warming consensus is not based on science, but for the political purpose. From my perspective, the severity of climate change indeed can affect the decisions of policy-makers, such as green policy and governance.

But it does not mean that people can just ignore the consequences of the enormous emission of greenhouse gases in the past few decades. Climate change is denied is due to the prioritization of business and the economy. Large corporations create their products with uncostly materials, in order to profit more, and those materials are more-often-than-not non-renewable resources or cause damage to the Earth.

These corporations prefer to not be targeted with accusations of the unethical damage they are causing. Therefore, they create propaganda against climate change, they create doubt among their customers. It is considered a business tactic to create news surrounding issues, in order to distract the consumers from whatever controversial issue that is, or could be, affecting their sales.

That over two decades there has not been any significant change in the way majority of people acknowledge that one of the major issue humans face is global warming. Even though relatively recently several countries did join the Paris climate agreement to confront climate change but it still does not help there is still a large amount of countries that will not contribute in reducing the effects of climate change.

It does feel hopeless at times trying to get people to at least acknowledge climate change and there is not be a chance to change the path of our future right now because it would be too late. Environmental issues began to be discussed and debated only towards the end of the 20th century. Since then significant amount of literature has been penned down raising awareness about issues of pollution, deforestation, animal rights and several others however it has failed to result in major changes, ideas or even actions to save the environment.

Several species of animals have become extinct; pollution level is at an all-time high, global warming is leading to severe climate changes all across the globe but these problems do not seem to alarm the decision makers. McKibben suggests there is inefficient spending and mechanisms by individual consumers. For example, a lots carbon emissions and sewage caused by individual consumers is the result of their inability to use the latest technology.

On the other hand Jensen argues by saying prejudicing powerless individuals instead of those who actually attain influential power in the system of government and policy making is one of the problems to mitigate environmental pollution. Many believed the Dust Bowl and floods of the Great Depression were natural disasters and framed destruction of the Great Plains as the result of weather, not human-created tragedies, even though scientific evidence proved otherwise.

However, when the news and government framed stories a consequence of weather conditions they failed to communicate the balance of nature was overturned thanks to the unbridled settling of the land that caused ecological disaster. The news presented only part of the story, devastation. Largely missing from reporting why ecological disaster came about, the connection between water and soil, and how unrestrained use and poor planning led to disaster. He believes that the concept of climate change was created by the Chinese to suppress the U.

What he sadly fails to see is that the plans he has to invest in infrastructure will ultimately corrode if implemented due to the fact that climate change ages and breaks down infrastructure. There are scientific reports that the flu death numbers are way too high.